Tag Archives: Freytag v. Commissioner

Securities And Exchange Commission Administrative Law Judges Are “Officers Of The United States” Under Appointments Clause

The Constitution’s Appointments Clause sets forth certain requirements for appointing “Officers of the United States,” who are more than mere employees of the federal government. The Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) utilizes Administrative Law Judges (ALJ) to adjudicate administrative proceedings involving violations of securities laws. Those ALJs are not appointed in accordance with the Appointments Clause. When Raymond Lucia was... Read More >